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Excellent article of Professor Paul Kan-The Timeless Allure of Agarwood: A Journey Through History, Faith, and Culture

August 18, 2015 3 min read

The Timeless Allure of Agarwood: A Journey Through History, Faith, and Culture


Agarwood, often hailed as the "king of incense," has been treasured across various cultures and religions for centuries. Its unique fragrance and mystical properties have made it a symbol of spirituality and luxury, influencing trade routes, religious rituals, and cultural exchanges throughout history. This article delves into the global significance of agarwood, its historical roots, and its sacred role in different faiths.

Agarwood and the Garden of Eden

The origins of agarwood can be traced back to biblical times. In the book of Numbers, Balaam's depiction of the Israelites mentions “the trees of lign aloes which the LORD hath planted,” suggesting a divine connection to agarwood (Numbers 24:6). This reference is further supported in the Old Testament:

  • Numbers 24:6: “As the valleys are they spread forth, as gardens by the river side, as the trees of lign aloes which the LORD hath planted, and as cedar trees beside the waters.”
  • Song of Solomon 4:14: The bridegroom sings: “Your thighs shelter a paradise of…Spikenard and saffron, fragrant calamus and cinnamon, with all the trees of frankincense, myrrh, and aloes, and every other lovely spice.”

These verses imply that agarwood was present in the Garden of Eden, associated with purity and divinity. Legend has it that when Adam and Eve were expelled from Eden, they used leaves from the agarwood tree to cover their bodies, marking it as a tree of great significance.

Agarwood in Ancient Civilisations

Throughout history, agarwood has held a place of reverence and value:

  • Ancient Egypt: Agarwood was used in mummification processes, highlighting its esteemed status in preserving the dead.
  • Jesus Christ: According to John 19:39, Jesus' body was anointed with a mixture of myrrh and aloes after His crucifixion, signifying the sacredness of agarwood in Christian traditions.
  • Buddha's Time in India: Agarwood was an essential component in religious rites and offerings. It was part of the “All Beta” incense mixture, used in welcoming rituals for Bodhisattvas and significant religious ceremonies.

The Influence of Agarwood on Trade

The demand for agarwood played a pivotal role in the development of ancient trade routes. Arab merchants, in their quest for this precious wood, discovered other valuable spices such as pepper and cinnamon. This trade expansion led to the establishment of:

  • The Incense Trail: Facilitating the exchange of goods and cultural interactions between the East and the West.
  • The Spice Route: Crucial in promoting trade, communication, and technological advancements.

China, known for trading silk, exchanged incense and spices, underscoring their importance in global cultural development.

Agarwood in Religious Practices

Agarwood's spiritual significance transcends cultures and religions, making it a revered element in various faiths:

  • Buddhism: Agarwood is mentioned in The Lotus Sutra as an offering that can penetrate the three domains. It is used in meditation, scripture chanting, and holy ceremonies. Agarwood malas, when warmed by body temperature, release a fragrance that promotes clarity and peace of mind.
  • Taoism: Taoists use agarwood for meditation and exorcism practices, symbolising the unification of the “qi” of heaven and earth. It is also used in health exercises to promote awakening and enlightenment.
  • Catholicism and Christianity: Agarwood is integral in anointment ceremonies and blessings. Holy oil made from agarwood is used to draw crosses on patients' foreheads and palms for spiritual support and healing. The planting of agarwood trees by newlyweds symbolised their union.
  • Islam: Agarwood is used in celebratory ceremonies, prayers, and cleansing rituals for the deceased. It plays a significant role in the spiritual practices of the Hui, Uygur, and Kazakh peoples.


Agarwood's rich history and deep-rooted significance in various cultures and religions highlight its timeless allure. From ancient trade routes to religious ceremonies, agarwood continues to be a symbol of spiritual depth, cultural richness, and historical continuity. Its journey through time underscores its enduring legacy as a treasured and sacred commodity.


For full article, click here (Kan 2011) Xiang He

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